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1. BASIC  & ANALOG ELECTRONICS LAB

This lab comprises of Basic Electronics and Analog Electronics lab. Each of them has different lab set-up and different experiments.

1.A. BASIC ELECTRONICS LAB

 

Objectives:

This is a first level laboratory in which students are introduced with Electronics & Communication Engineering for the first time and are trained with preliminary of Electronics.

Experiments:

Training in this laboratory is done through properly planned structured programme with the following sequences:

i)               Introduction and identification of different active and passive electronic devices / components.

ii)                 Familiarization with different signal sources and instruments used in electronic engineering.   In the process student can learn the significances of the manufactures specifications etc.

iii)                  To learn the use/ handling of different measuring instruments like multimeters, C.R.O etc.

iv) Find and studies on the various characteristic of different active devices like diodes (PN Junction Diode, Zener Diode, LED) transistors, field effect transistor, Photodiodes and to determine the different parameters of these devices

v)                 To recognize Half Wave & Full Wave rectified sinusoidal signal & find out different parameters.

vi)                Familiarization with op-amp & measurement of it’s different parameters.

vii)                Implementation of different logic gates & Boolean functions using different Ics.

 

Major Equipment in the Lab

1.                   Various power supplies – fixed and variable variety with different current rating. Make – Scientech, Aplab etc. Some of the power supply are in use designed and fabricated technical staff of the department.

2.                   Digital multimeters (scientech)

3.                   Cathode ray oscilloscope (Scientech)

4.                   Function Generator (Scientech)

5.                   Regulated DC power supply (Scientech)

6.                   FET Test Set (Detech, Scientech- Nvis Technologies)

7.                   PN Junction Diode / Zener Diode Test Set (HITECH)

8.                   Op-Amp Power Supply

9.                   Rectifier Test Set (HITECH)

10.                Op-Amp Test Set (SCIENTECH)

11                 Transistor Test Set (Scientech- Nvis Technologies)

 

 

 

 

1.B.  ANALOG ELECTRONICS LAB

 

 Objective:

The laboratory introduces students to practical, circuit design and contributes significantly to provide them with engineering skills. The experiments covered in this laboratory are synchronized with its theoretical part, so that students might be able to understand the practical aspects of it. Students can build simple circuits by understanding electronics schematics and set working prototype circuits. The purpose is to teach analog circuit design theory and to give the student an understanding of the factors governing the behaviour of electronic circuits. Topics covered also demonstrate the need for strong electronic component in other scientific and engineering fields. The students are encouraged to analyze the requirements and determine the fundamental criteria of sound circuit design the main intention of this laboratory is to give introduction to different steps used in the design of electronic systems according to industrial standards.

 

Experiments:

In this laboratory students are introduce to design, assembly, testing, and trouble-shooting of analog electronic circuits. Experiments encompass a wide range of topics such as amplifiers, filters, power supplies, power control, oscillators, and communication circuits. In this laboratory experiments are done through following planned sequences:

1)                   Learn the various applications of diode like-clipper, clamper, full wave rectifier etc.

2)                   Study voltage regulator using Zener diode and measure ripple and regulation characteristics without and with capacitor filter.

3)                   Find and studies on the various characteristic of B.J.T & F.E.T and to determine their different parameters.

4)                   Study some important aspects of different power amplifiers configurations. Eg.- class A & class B, class C & Push-Pull amplifiers

5)                   Design a two-stage R-C coupled amplifier & study of its gain & Bandwidth.

6)                   Realization of different applications of operational amplifier - current mirror, level shifter circuit & V-to-I , I-to-V converter,.

7)                   Find and studies the different configuration of multivibrators using NE 555

8)                   Design and construct switched mode power supply, voltage regulator using regulator IC chip

9)                   Construction of simple function generator using IC chip.

10)    Study of a digital to analog converter and vice versa.

 

Major Equipment in the Lab

1)    Function generator- (Scientech)

2)    Variable Power supply: fixed and variable variety with different current rating. Make – Elnova, Scientech etc. Some of the power supply is in use designed and fabricated by students and technical staff of the department.

3)       Digital multimeters ( SCIENTECH)

4) Oscilloscope  Cathode Ray Oscilloscope. (25MHz, 30 MHz, scientech) ii)Digital Storage Oscilloscope. (100MHz, scientech)

4)        Distortion Meter(Scientech).

7)       Output Power Meter. (Scientech)

8)       Trainer Kit.  Transistor Push Pull Amplifier. (scientech) , Tuned Amplifier. (Scientech), Switch Mode Power Supply.  Nvis technologies , Push Pull Amplifier.(Scientech),  Analog To Digital Converter. (Scientech) , Class A Amplifier. (Scientech),  Class B Amplifier. (Scientech),Digital To Analog Converter. (Scientech) , V.C.O & PLL. (Scientech), Class C Tuned Amplifier. (Scientech)

 

 

 

 

 

2. DIGITAL AND MICROPROCESSOR LAB

 

This lab comprises of Microprocessor and Digital Electronics lab. Each of them has different lab set-up and different experiments

2.A.  DIGITAL ELECTRONICS LAB

 Objectives:

Digital Electronics is technology subject which is intended to make students familiar with different types of designs as sequential logic circuits, combinational logic circuits, trouble shooting of various digital systems & study of various digital systems. Knowledge of basic electronics & digital techniques is useful in understanding theory and practicals of the subjects. For years, applications ofdigital electronics were confined to computer systems. Today digital electronics are applied in many diverse areas such as telephony, data processing, radar, navigation, military systems, medical instruments, process controls etc.

 

 

Experiments:

In this laboratory students are introduced with digital ICs and their specifications and are skilled with practical digital circuit design. Training in this laboratory is done with accurate planned structured programme with the following sequences:

i)    Introduction and identification of different digital IC chips and their specifications, concept of Vcc and ground, verification of the truth tables of logic gates.

ii)     To learn the use of different ICs and LEDs for designing logic circuit and verifying the results respectively.

iii)     Study of basic gate diagrams and realize the same with universal logic gates .

iv)    Realization of different codes and also the conversion technique like BCD to Excess-3 and vice-versa, BCD to decimal to drive 7-segment display using multiplexer etc.

v)    Construction of various combinational circuits such as adder, adder circuit using shift Register and full adder,subtractor,simple decoder,multiplexer,parity generator and comparator using logic gate ICs or any specific chip.

 Major Equipment in the Lab

1.                 Fixed and variable Various power supplies (scientech)

2.                   Multiple power supply (Scientech)

3.                   Digital multimeters (scientech)

4.                   Function generators: (Scientech)

 

 

 

 

 

2.B. MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCONTROLLER LAB

 

 Objectives:

In the last twenty five years or so, microprocessors and microelectronics in general have brought about a revolution in computer science, manufacturing, telecommunications as well as in space and high-energy physics. In view of the impact of this new technology .In recent years the Laboratory has organized and provided support not only to courses strictly related to Microprocessors, but also to other activities related to telematics, programming of real-time systems, data acquisition systems, digital signal processing and scientific instrumentation. The goals of this lab is to supplement the theory course (Microprocessor and Micro-controller) to assist the students in obtaining a better understanding of the operation of Microprocessor and Micro-controller architecture, programming ,and application part to provide experience in analyzing and test of Microprocessor and Micro-controller using trainer kits .The basic function of these lab is :

- To understand basic theories of Microprocessor and Micro-controller system

-To learn the programming of Microprocessor and Microcontrollers.

- To understand the applications Microprocessor and Micro-controller and

different peripheral systems.

Experiments:

i) Study of prewritten programs on trainer kit using the basic instruction set (data transfer,

Load/Store, Arithmetic, Logical).

ii) Familiarization with 8085 simulator on PC

iii) Programming using kit and simulator for:

a) Table look up

b) Copying a block of memory

c) Shifting a block of memory

d) Packing and unpacking of BCD numbers

e) Addition of BCD numbers

f) Binary to ASCII conversion

g) String Matching Multiplication using Booth’s Algorithm

iv) Program using subroutine calls and IN/OUT instructions using 8255 PPI on the trainer

kit e.g. subroutine for delay, reading switch state and glowing LEDs accordingly

v) Study of timing diagram of an instruction on oscilloscope

Major Equipment of the lab:

1)                   8085 Microprocessor trainer kit

2)                   8086 Microprocessor trainer kit

3)                   8051 Microcontroller trainer kit

4)                   8255 Microprocessor trainer kit

5)                   8279 Microprocessor trainer kit

 

 

 

3. COMMUNICATION LAB

 

This lab comprises of Analog Communication lab, Digital Communication lab and Advanced Communication lab. Each of them has different lab set-up and different experiments.

 

3.A. ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB

 

 Objectives:

All kind of signals we deal with in nature are analog.  Analog Communication is an essential part of modern day technology. The course provides comprehensive, hands-on instruction in the terminology, principles, and applications of the analog communication circuits.

 

 Experiments:

This is a laboratory where students are aquinted with Communication Engineering for the first time and are skilled with preliminary of Communication .Training in this laboratory is done through properly planned structured programme with the following sequences:

i) Measurement of modulation index of an AM signal.

ii) Measurement of output power with varying modulation index f an AM signal(for both DSB-SC & SSB).

iii) Measurement of distortion of the demodulated output with varying modulation index of an AM signal (for both DSB-SC & SSB).

iv) Measurement of power of different frequency components of a frequency modulated signal & the measurement of the bandwidth.

v) Design a PLL using VCO & to measure the lock frequency.

vi) Design a FM demodulator using PLL.


Major Equipments in the Lab:

1. Various power supplies – fixed and variable variety with different current rating. Make – Enova, Aplab etc. Some of the power supplies are in use designed and fabricated by technical staff of the department and project students.

2. Digital multimeters : Metravi-19

3. Cathode ray oscilloscope : Scientech (20MHz, 25MHz, 30 MHz, 50 MHz)

4. DSB, SSB/AM Transmitter Trainer kit: Scientech, ST-2201

5. DSB, SSB/AM Receiver Trainer kit: Scientech, ST-2202 (also used as super heterodyne receiver)

6. FM Transmitter & Receiver Trainer Kit; SCIENTECH, ST-2203

 

 

 

 

 

3.B. DIGITAL COMMUNICATION LAB

 

Objectives:

Analog systems have been dominant over the last century. However, over the last two decadesdigital communications have become prominent because of the increase in performance it provides.Digital systems allow for increased data transmission and more resistance to noise. There are many different ways to modulate binary digital signals depending on the communication system. The goals of this lab is to supplement the theory course (Digital Communication) to assist the students in obtaining a better understanding of the operation of digital modulation schemes and to provide experience in analyzing and test of digital communication systems using simulation software as well as lab instruments. Also Laboratory experiments deal with the measurement of SNR, Modulation Index, PCM, and spread spectrum etc. In brief

1. To understand basic theories of digital communication system.

2. To design and implement digital modulator and demodulator

3. To understand the applications of digital modulator and demodulator circuits.

 

 Experiments:

Digital systems allow for increased data transmission and more resistance to noise. There are many different ways to modulate binary digital signals depending on the communication system. The goals of this lab is to supplement the theory course (Digital Communication systems) to assist the students in obtaining a better understanding of the operation of digital modulation schemes and to provide experience in analyzing and test of digital communication systems using simulation software as well as lab instruments. Also Laboratory experiments deal with the following experiments:

1. To understand how Digital modulation like ASK, FSK, PSK is done & what is the output waveform.

2. Studies on Delta modulator & Demodulator using trainer kits

3. To understand the digital to Analog and Analog to Digital conversion.

4. To generate the PN sequence in lab.

5. Studies of PCM transmitter and receiver.

6. Study of line coders: UPNRZ, PRZ, BPRZ, PNRZ

7. Studies on Adaptive delta modulation using trainer kits

8. Studies on PCM/TDM system

9. Studies of direct sequence spread spectrum modulation and demodulation

 

 

Major Equipment in the Lab

1. Various Kit: ASK, FSK, PSK, TDM, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Modulation, PCM, A/D, D/A converter etc. (Scientech) .

2. Cathode ray oscilloscope.(Scientech ,20MHz, 25MHz, 30 MHz, 50 MHz)

3. Digital Storage Oscilloscope.

 

 

 

 

 

3.C. ADVANCED COMMUNICATION LAB

 

 Objectives:

In this lab we study the latest communication techniques. The optical fiber communication technique is one of the developments in the field of communication where the information is transmitted from one place to another through optical fiber in the form of light defying the electromagnetic interference and increasing the bandwidth. Apart from this satellite communication and mobile communication is the fastest growing segment of the communication industry.

The satellite communication is where artificial satellites are launched in the orbit and are used for various applications of telecommunication, the First generation (1G) cellular systems in the U.S called the Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), used FDMA and the second generation (2G) digital systems called GSM 1. The GSM standard uses a combination of TDMA and slow frequency hopping with frequency-shift keying for the voice modulation.


Experiments:

The Advance lab provides a wide range of experimental setup as follows

• Measurement of numerical aperture of an Optical Fiber.

• Measurement of Propagation loss, bending loss, and Connector loss in an Optical Fiber.

• Studies of LASER Characteristic: A) Optical Power (Po) of a LASER Diode Vs LASER Diode Forward current (IF). B) Monitor Photo Diode Current (Im) vs. LASER Optical Power output

• Studies on cellular mobile communication System: Working principle, input /output Signal of different sections, Transmitter and Receiver section. Study of SIM Card and its Detection, SIM reset, SIM Clock, SIM Data, and SIM Supply.

• Studies on GSM: Understanding of GSM Technology Signal like its network, network commands: Modem Commands, Simcard hardware commands, Network registration commands, Call control commands, Phone book commands, Message handling commands

 

 

Major Equipment in the Lab

 • Optical fiber trainer kit (Scientech)

 • Optical fiber trainer kit for PC to PC communication (Scientech)

 • LASER trainer kit (Scientech)

• GSM trainer kit (Scientech)

 

 

 

 

 

4. SIMULATION LAB

 

This lab offers Signals and System lab, Solid State Lab, Digital Signal Processing Lab and VLSI lab. Each Laboratory has different equipments and different experiments where all kind of simulation are performed using different software tools.

 

4.A. SIGNALS & SYSTEMS LAB

 

Objectives:

The Signals and Systems is concerned with the representation of signals and the study of the changes that occur to them as they pass through systems. The study of Signals and Systems is to allow one to predict, with some certainty, the behaviour of systems when they are subjected to different input signals. The problem solving and analytical skills that the student acquires through the study of the subject can often help him in his later career to tackle and solve problems in a systematic manner.

Looking ahead, the scope of potential applications of the methods of Signals and Systems will continue to grow as engineers are faced with new challenges involving ever more complex systems and processes.

Experiments:

1. Students can visualize the Z-domain analysis of: a) Sinusoidal signals b) Step functions.

2. Verify the output of Fourier and Laplace transformations of a signal.

3. To study convolution theorem in time and frequency domain.

4. To Study Signal Synthesis via sum of harmonics.

5. To study LPF &HPF, band passes and rejects filters using RC circuits.

6. To demonstrate how analog signals are sampled and how different sampling rates affect the outputs.

7. To study sampling theorem for low pass signals and band pass signals.

8. To determine the components of: a) Square wave b) Clipped sine wave.

 

Major equipments in the lab:

1. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (Scientech ,20MHz, 25MHz, 30 MHz, 50 MHz)

2. Function Generator: i) Scientech, ST-4060,1MHz 1.

3. Digital Multi-meter (Metravi-19)

4. MATLAB 2008b (Mathworks

 

 

 

4.B. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB

 

 Objective:

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) can be described as the processing of signals using digital techniques or digital computers. A signal is a piece of information in binary or digital form. Digital Signal processing techniques improve signal quality or extract important information by removing unwanted part of the signal.

Digital Signal Processing accounts for a substantial proportion of the world market for electronic devices. And therefore, the leading electronics manufacturers have invested heavily in DSP technology

 

Experiments:

1. Realization of different kinds of discrete signals.

2. Effect of different arithmetic operations on the discrete signals.

3. Study the utility of convolution of two sequences using different methods.

4. Familiar with frequency domain analysis of the discrete signals using z-transform and Fourier transform.

5. Simulate DFT & IDFT & study their properties.

6. Study the difference between linear and circular convolution and its application.

7. Realization of the Butterworth Filter with different set of design parameters.

 

Major equipments in the Lab:

1. Desktop PC

2. DSP Starter Kit TMS320C5416 (Texus Instruments)

3. MATLAB 7.0.1 (Mathworks)

4. MATLAB 2008b (Mathworks)

 

 

 

4.C. SOLID STATE DEVICE LAB

 

 Objectives:

This lab is newly introduced in the curriculum of WBUT for the B.Tech students of ECE 2nd year 3rd semester. The purpose of this lab is to realize the characteristics of various semiconductor devices such as BJT, JFET, and RC coupled amplifiers etc. using breadboard and also using suitable software.

This lab gives the proper justification of theoretical knowledge in practical domain by the help of numerous components and equipment present in the laboratory.

 

 Experiments:

1. Study the input characteristics curve of BJT in Common Emitter mode of operation.

2. To obtain the output characteristics curve of BJT in Common Emitter mode of operation. Hence determine the hybrid parameters.

3. To observe the drain and transfer characteristics of JFET. Hence determine the FET

parameters.

4. Study the variation of small signal voltage gain with frequency of JFET.

5. Observe the variation of small signal voltage gain with frequency for single stage CE amplifier.

6. Analysis of the drain and transfer characteristics of a MOS structure using suitable software.

7. To obtain the C-V characteristics of Varactor diode using suitable software.

 

 

Major Equipments in the Lab

1. Desktop PC

2. Power Supply

3. CRO

4. Function generator

5. PSPICE

 

 

 

4.D. VLSI CIRCUITS & SYSTEM LAB

 

 Objectives:

This lab has been established to give idea to the students about the configuration and simulation of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits & Systems. Basic Objectives of this lab to explore various design style of simple and complex Integrated Circuits(IC) near to students. In this laboratory students are able to understand about models and model parameters of various devices like MOSFET, BJT, DIODE etc. which are suited for IC Technology. In this laboratory there is provision to configure and simulate CMOS Circuit & Systems also. It is possible to design of layout of various CMOS Circuits in micron, submicron and deep submicron level using Tanner Tools.

 

 Experiments:

Following experiments are performed by B.Tech (E.C.E) 6th semester students.

• Transient analysis of CMOS Inverter.

• Simulation of resistive load MOS Inverter.

• Study of voltage transfer characteristics (VTC) of CMOS Inverter.

• Study of voltage transfer characteristics (VTC) of resistive load MOS Inverter.

• Design and Simulation of logic gates (AND,OR,NAND,NOR,Ex-OR,Ex-NOR).

• Familiarization of SPICE model parameters of MOS.

• Design and simulation of single bit Full adder circuit.

• Design of resistive load MOS differential pair.

• Simulation of CMOS differential amplifier.

• Layout generation of NOT,AND & OR gates.


Major equipments in the Lab:

• Xilinx

• Desktop PC.

• FPGA, CPLD Trainer

 

 

 

 

5. Microwave Engineering and EM theory & Transmission line Laboratory

 

This lab comprises of EM Theory & Transmission Line and Microwave  lab. Each of them has different lab set-up and different experiments.

 

 Objectives:

 

1.    There will be a couple of familiarization lectures before the practical classes are undertaken where basic concept of the Microwave Test-Bench will be given. Lectures on measurement techniques and error calculation will also have to be organized.

2. In this context, the Microwave Laboratory at the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Global Institute of Management & Technology, Krishnanagar is motivated to work towards the design and analysis of microwave circuits, components and sub-systems including micro-machined devices for RF, microwave, millimeter wave applications.

3.     Design, analysis, optimization and characterization of miniaturized RF and microwave components and devices based on new breakthroughs in microwave theory and techniques

Training in this laboratory is done through properly planned structured program with the following sequences:


Experiments:

 

1. Measurement of wavelength, guide wavelength and frequency using X-band waveguide test bench.   Calculation of broad wall dimension of a X-band waveguide.

2. Determination of phase and group velocity plot

3.        Determination of basic parameters of a directional coupler using calibrated attenuator.

4.        Klystron characteristics using X-band waveguide test-bench.

5.        Study of Gunn Oscillator characteristics using X-band waveguide test-bench.

6.        Measurement of reflection coefficient using two directional couplers and one calibrated attenuator.

7.        Measurement of phase shift of a microwave phase shifter/Scattering matrix of a magic tee / E-plane tee / H-plane tee using waveguide test bench at X-band.

8.        Measuring of dielectric constant of a material using waveguide test bench at X-band.

9.        Measurement of Conduction EMI using LISN and spectrum analyzer

Frequency response of RF amplifier using spectrum analyzer with tracking generator

 

Major Equipment in the Lab:


1.     Various microwave sources –

2.     Solid state source (Gunn diode)

3.     Vacuum tube source (Klystron)

4.     X- band Power meter with sensor

5.     RF Power output meter

6.     CRO Make- VSWR meter

7.     Movable short Make,  Slide screw tuner,  Phase shifter

8.      Multi hole directional coupler, E-H tuner, Magic, E- Plane, H Plane Tee, E-Plane Bend    

9.     Attenuator, Co-axial wave guide adapter,  Precision short 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

         5.A. EM THEORY & TRANSMISSION LINE LAB

 

Objective

 After attending this lab an electronics students will learn the knowledge of different antenna and their radiation pattern which is basic of communication via Radio frequency or Electromagnetic Wave. Moreover students will learn the operation of Transmission line, how to measure the length and fault in a coaxial cable. 

 

 

Experiments:

a)    Find and studies on the several of Standing Wave Pattern along a transmission line when the line is open-circuited, short circuited and terminated by a resistive load at the load end.

b)    Familiarization of Smith chart on MATLAB platform, for this experiment need to learn theory Smith chart & basic concept of MATLAB Software.

c)     To learn the radiation pattern of different type of antennas Eg: dipole, folded-dipole, 3-element Yagi-Uda antenna and measure HPBW & FNBW for corresponding antennas.

d)    Comparative study to find beam width, gain and radiation pattern of a 3-element, 5-element and 7-element parasitic array (Yagi-Uda) antenna.

e)     To calculate gain, directivity of a Pyramidal Horn Antenna with obtaining radiation pattern.

f)     Familiarization with different signal on Spectrum Analyzer. In the process student can learn the significances of the manufactures specifications etc.

 

Major Equipment in the Lab:

 

·         Antenna Trainer Kit  with dipole, Yagi-Uda, Patch, Array Antenna

·         Horn Antenna Set up with Reflex Klystron

·         Transmission Line Trainer with different coaxial cable and load

·         CRO

·         Spectrum Analyzer

·         Mechanical Turn Table

·         E- Sect oral Horn

·         H- Sect oral Horn

·         Parabolic disc antenna

          ·         Pyramidal horn

 

 

 

 

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